Our PAK-VII is a pulse input coprocessor. You can read the datasheet, but here is the nickel tour:

8 channels of pulse measurement
Measures high and low durations with 5uS resolution
Counts rising and falling edges
Software select CMOS/TTL, Pullups, and Schmitt trigger inputs
Access to raw timing and input state
Provides 200uS and 1 second timer ticks
Uses the PAK two-wire protocol (similar to SPI) -- easy to program, speed independent, easy to use without interrupts

With the Stamp you can use ShiftIn and ShiftOut to communicate with the part (or use our simple Stamp library). Even while the Stamp is doing something else, the PAK-VII is measuring and counting. (Yes, there is a Pulse Output coprocessor in the works.)

A Clock

This month's circuit is a 24 hour clock using a Stamp II, a PAK-VII, and a SEETRON serial LCD. The Stamp is free to do other operations without losing time. In this case, it scans push buttons and also measures a frequency. The program also generates a test frequency for you to measure, or you can hook it up to an external signal if you like.

The circuit has three push buttons connected to the PAK-VII. Honestly, the PAK-VII is better at measuring pulses than push buttons. However, it can do the job and that leaves Stamp pins free. If the buttons were bounceless, the count feature would allow the PAK-VII to handle multiple key presses. However, since there is some bounce on the switches and I didn't want to add hardware to debounce them, I do handle the debounce in the Stamp software.

One button enters Set mode. The LCD will show an asterisk by the time when the Set mode is active. While in set mode, the two other buttons will increment the hour and minute respectively. The Stamp only checks the buttons every second, so it is easy to see that the PAK-VII is monitoring the buttons even when the Stamp is busy.

When you depress the Set button again, the clock exits Set mode and resets the second count to 0 seconds.

Under the Hood

The PAK-VII uses a register structure.

Here are the available registers:

Register number

Name

Function

Units

000

DURLOW

Duration of last logic low pulse

5uS

001

DURHIGH

Duration of last logic high pulse

5uS

010

RAWLOW

Current count for low pulse

5uS

011

RAWHIGH

Current count for high pulse

5uS

100

RISE

Number of rising edges detected

101

FALL

Number of falling edges detected

110

Special registers

TICK200

Channel 0 - Timer tick

200mS

TICK

Channel 1 - Timer tick

1S

INP

Channel 7 - Current input status

111

SUM

Sum of registers 000 and 001

5uS

When using the Basic Stamp library, you set the channel number (0-7), the register number (0-7) and you can set a flag that will clear the channel after you read it, or you can clear the entire set of registers for the channel. Then you call FCommand and read the result from FPX. Here are the commands in the library.

Call

Arguments

Description

FCommand

clearreg = 1 to clear register
clearchan = 1 to clear channel
chan = channel number
register = register number

Read register to fpx (do not set clearreg and clearchan simultaneously)

FReset

none

Reset PAK I/O

FTotalReset

none

Completely reset PAK

FPrescale

fpb=PPPP

Set prescale ratio

FPullUp

fpx=pull up byte

Set pull up byte (0=pullup on)

FThresh

fpx=threshold byte

Set threshold (0=CMOS)

FSchmitt

fpx=Schmitt byte

Set Schmitt trigger (0=on)

The Code

' Clock and frequency counter
' using BS2 and PAK-VII -- Williams

' Change these to suit your setup
datap con 15   ' Data pin (I/O)
datapin var in15
clk con 14     ' Clk pin (output)
' SEETRON LCD and baud rate
lcd con 7
baud con 84+$4000

' Register names
DURLOW con %000
DURHIGH con %001
RAWLOW con %010
RAWHIGH con %011
RISE con %100
FALL con %101
TICK200 con %110
TICK con %110
INP con %110
SUM con %111


output clk
output datap

fpx var word        ' Integer used by some routines
fpb var byte        ' byte

' parameters for FCommand
chan var nib
register var nib
clearreg var bit
clearchan var bit

setmode var bit  ' true when setting time
seconds var byte
last var byte
minu var byte
hour var byte

gosub freset        ' always reset!

' Main code
gosub FTotalReset  ' reset PAK-VII hard
serout lcd,baud,[12,14]  ' clear display and backlight on
fpx=0
' Turn on Pullup and Schmitt triggers
gosub FPullUp
gosub FSchmitt

' read & clear timer (chan 1, TICK)
tloop:
clearreg=1
chan=1
register=TICK
gosub FCommand

' get correct time units
seconds = seconds + fpx
minu = minu + (seconds/60)
seconds = seconds // 60
hour = hour + (minu/60)
minu = minu // 60
if hour<>24 then nomidnite
hour=0  ' wrap around at 23:59 + 1
nomidnite:

' update display etc no more than once per second
if last=seconds then tloop  
last=seconds

' out to LCD
serout lcd,baud,[12,dec2 hour,":",dec2 minu,":",dec2 seconds]
' only print * if in set mode
if setmode=0 then nodset
serout lcd,baud,[" *"]

' see if any button pushes for hour set
chan=1
register=FALL
gosub FCommand
if fpx=0 then noseth
hour=hour+1//24
pause 1
gosub FCommand  ' clear bounces after 1ms

noseth:
' see if any button pushes for minute set
chan=2
gosub FCommand
if fpx=0 then nodset
minu=minu+1//60
pause 1
gosub FCommand  ' clear bounces after 1ms

nodset:   ' no setting

' generate test frequency
' (about 806Hz on a BS2)
for fpx=1 to 10
toggle 8
fpx=fpx
toggle 8
next

' frequency meter
chan=3
register=SUM
gosub FCommand

' Convert to Hz 1000000/fpx is about the same
' as 50000/(fpx/4)
fpx=fpx/4
fpx=50000/fpx  ' fpx= approx freq in hZ
serout lcd,baud,[13,"f=",dec fpx," Hz"]

' check for set mode change
chan=0
register=FALL
gosub FCommand
if fpx=0 then tloop
if setmode then noset
' start setting time
  setmode=1
goto tloop

noset:
' stop setting time
  seconds=0
  last=59
  setmode=0
  goto tloop

' Reset the Pak7 I/O
FReset:
LOW DATAP
LOW CLK
HIGH CLK
HIGH DATAP
LOW CLK     
return

FCommand:
' inputs chan = channel, register = register, clearreg and clearchan
 fpb=(clearchan<<7) + (clearreg<<6) + (register<<3) + chan
 gosub FSendByte
FReadWord:
  Shiftin datap,clk,MSBPRE,[fpx.lowbyte,fpx.highbyte]
  return

FTotalReset:
  fpb=$FF
FSendByte:
  Shiftout datap,clk,MSBFIRST,[fpb]
  return

FReadByte:
  shiftin datap,clk,MSBPRE,[fpb]
  return

FPrescale:
' set fpb to the prescale constant
  fpb = fpb + $C0
  goto FSendByte
  
FPullUp:
' set fpx to the pull up mask
  fpb=%11010000
Fscmd:
  gosub FSendByte
  fpb=fpx
  goto FSendByte
  
FThresh:
' set fpx to the threshold mask
  fpb=%11010001
  goto Fscmd
  
FSchmitt:
' set fpx to the Schmitt trigger mask
  fpb=%11010010
  goto Fscmd
  

Site contents © 1997-2014 by AWC, 310 Ivy Glen, League City, TX 77573    (281) 334-4341